Project Management Fundamentals

Project management involves juggling multiple tasks, deadlines, and resources to achieve a specific goal. It's a vital skill in today's fast-paced business environment, where organizations rely on projects to drive innovation, growth, and change. But, as any project manager knows, it's not always easy to keep everything on track. That's why, in this blog post, we're going to explore the fundamentals of project management.

We'll take a deep dive into the key concepts, processes, knowledge areas, and tools that every project manager should know. From defining project scope and creating a project plan to managing risks and measuring progress, we'll cover everything you need to know about project management fundamentals.

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What is a Project?

A project is defined as a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. It is characterized by a specific goal, a defined scope, and a set of activities and tasks that must be completed in order to achieve that goal.

A project also has a defined start and end date and requires the use of resources such as time, money, and personnel. Additionally, a project is typically managed by a project manager who is responsible for planning, organizing, and overseeing the project to ensure it is completed successfully. Overall, a project is a unique and specific undertaking that requires careful planning and execution in order to achieve the desired outcome.

What is Project Management?

Project management is defined as the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements. Project management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the project management processes identified for the project.
Project management enables organizations to execute projects effectively and efficiently.

Now, let's take an example of preparing tea for a couple of people and you are the one who is preparing the tea.


The knowledge part of the definition of project management can be associated with the scope, quality, schedule, cost, quantity and your experience of preparing the tea.


The skills part of the definition can be associated with your optimal use of the ingredients such as water, milk, sugar, and tea powder which are required to prepare the tea.

Further, if you want to read about project management skills, you can refer below:

Project management skills are the abilities and competencies that are required to effectively plan, execute, and close a project. These skills can be divided into several categories including technical, leadership, and soft skills.

  • Technical skills include the ability to understand and use project management tools and methodologies such as Gantt charts, PERT diagrams, and critical path analysis. These skills also include the ability to create detailed project plans, schedules, and budgets.
  • Leadership skills include the ability to manage a team, communicate effectively, and make decisions. Project managers need to be able to motivate and lead a team to achieve project goals, as well as to delegate tasks and responsibilities effectively.
  • Soft skills include the ability to problem-solve, think critically, and adapt to change. Project managers need to be able to think on their feet and make quick decisions, while also being flexible and able to adjust plans as needed.


The tools part of the definition can be associated with your efficient use of gas, lighter, utensils, cups, etc.


And the techniques part of the definition can be associated with your effective use of preparing the tea. Like if you want to heat the water first and then add tea, powdered sugar and milk. Or if you want to heat the water and milk first and then add tea, powder and sugar.

Further, read about what are project management techniques below:

Project management techniques are methodologies and approach that project managers use to plan, execute, and close projects more effectively. These techniques can be divided into several categories including project planning, project scheduling, project budgeting, project communication, and project risk management.

Basics of a Project

The basics of a project typically include the following elements:

  1. Project Charter: This document outlines the project's goals and objectives, as well as the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders.
  2. Project Plan: This document outlines the tasks and resources needed to complete the project, as well as the timeline for completion.
  3. Project Scope: This document defines the boundaries of the project, including the specific deliverables that will be produced and the constraints that must be considered.
  4. Project Schedule: This document outlines the timeline for the project, including the start and end dates, as well as the key milestones that must be achieved along the way.
  5. Project Budget: This document outlines the financial resources that are required to complete the project, including the costs of materials, labor, and equipment.
  6. Project Team: This includes the individuals or groups who will be responsible for completing the project, including the project manager, subject matter experts, and any other key personnel.
  7. Project Risks: This includes the potential issues or obstacles that may arise during the course of the project, as well as a plan for addressing them.
  8. Project Communication: This includes the plan for how the information will be shared among team members and stakeholders throughout the project's lifecycle.

Components of a Project

Projects comprise several key components that when effectively managed, result in their successful completion. The various components interrelate with one another during the management of a project.

1. Project Lifecycle

The project lifecycle is the first component of a project. It can be defined as a series of phases that a project passes through from its start to its completion. The project lifecycle is the same regardless of the industry. It includes starting the project, organizing and preparing the project, carrying out the work of the project and ending the project.

Continuing with our example of preparing the Tea. Starting the project would include the reason for the project, what is the need of preparing the tea? What are the benefits that you would derive from this project? Organizing and preparing the project would include defining the scope of preparing tea, the time it would take to prepare the tea and the resources it would require to prepare the tea and so on and so forth.

Carrying out the work of the project would include using all the resources, scope, time, etc, Which are identified in the planning of the project and doing the actual work that is preparing the team. Closing the project would include producing the deliverables and getting the intended objective.

2. Project Phases

The project phase is another component of a project and it can be defined as a collection of logically related activities or logically related project activities that culminate in the completion of one or more deliverables. For example, we can have a visibility phase, we can have a customer requirements phase, we can have a design phase, we can have a development phase, and we can have a transition phase.

So let's say the outcome of the customers' requirements phase would be a document which is usually called as the requirement specification document.

3. Phase Gate

The third component of a project is the Phase Gate. It is a review at the end of a phase in which a decision is made to continue to the next phase, to continue with modification or to end the program or project.

4. Project Management Processes

The fourth component of a project is Project Management Processes. A process can be defined as a systematic series of activities directed toward causing an end result where one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs. In our example the output is tea. The inputs were sugar, tea powder, water, and milk. The tools and techniques that we used were the gas stove, the lighters, the cups and the techniques that we used while preparing the tea.

5. Project Management Process Groups

The fifth component of a project is the Project Management Process Groups. It can be defined as a logical grouping of project management inputs, tools and techniques and outputs. The project management process groups include initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing project management process groups are not project phases.

6. Project Management Knowledge Areas

The 6th and last component of a project is the Project Management Knowledge area. A project Management knowledge area can be defined as an identified area of project management, defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools and techniques. There are ten project management knowledge areas identified in PMBOK 6th edition.

Benefits of Effective Project Management

Effective project management is essential for the success of any project. It allows project managers to align the project's goals and objectives with the overall business strategy, ensuring that the project delivers value to the organization. Some of the key benefits of effective project management include:

  1. Meeting Business Objectives: By effectively managing a project, organizations can ensure that the project's deliverables align with the overall business objectives, providing a clear return on investment.
  2. Customer Satisfaction: Effective project management ensures that customer needs and requirements are met on time, within budget and to the required quality standards, resulting in increased customer satisfaction.
  3. Change Management: Effective project management enables organizations to effectively manage changes in the project scope, schedule and budget, ensuring that the project remains aligned with business objectives.
  4. Balance Constraints: Effective project management enables organizations to effectively balance competing project constraints, such as scope, schedule, budget, and quality, and ensure that the project remains on track.
  5. Risk Management: Effective project management allows organizations to identify, assess and mitigate project risks, reducing the likelihood of project failure and increasing the chances of project success.
  6. Resources Optimization: Effective project management allows organizations to optimize the use of project resources, such as time, money and personnel, resulting in increased efficiency and reduced costs.


In conclusion, project management is a complex and multi-faceted discipline that requires a deep understanding of various fundamental concepts and principles. The most important aspects of project management include the project lifecycle, project phases, phase gates, project management processes, process groups, and knowledge areas. By effectively managing these components, project managers can effectively plan, execute and close the project, ensuring it meets its objectives on time and within budget.

If you wish to successfully manage projects, getting PMP certified can help you effectively manage projects by improving your skills, increasing your credibility and recognition and providing opportunities for networking and professional development. With Techcanvass’s PMP Certification training course, you can easily crack the exam on your first attempt.


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